On your map:
Canada and Alaska
Most of Canada and Alaska have either a tundra or a subarctic climate. In subarctic climates, winters are very long, cold, and snowy. But the climate warms up as you move farther south.
The area closest to the continental United States enjoys a mostly humid continental climate. Winters are still freezing cold, but summers can be hot and steamy. Nearly all of Canada and Alaska have heavy snows in the winter.
But on the west coast of British Columbia, the marine west coast climate brings more rain than snow. There, and in the southern part of Canada, summers are warmer and drier.
Continental United States
No part of the continental United States has a tundra or subarctic climate. The climate here can vary greatly, depending on where you are. One state, California, has as many as five different climate zones.
The southern part of the United States is generally warm year-round. Arid and semiarid climates are common in the Southwest. This area is hot and dry in the summer and pleasant in the winter, with very little rain. Many older people from colder climates choose to retire in the Southwest.
Most of the Midwest and the Great Plains have a humid continental climate. People here enjoy four distinct seasons. Summers are quite warm and winters are cold, often with snow and ice storms. The Great Plains also has a temperate grassland vegetation zone. Grasses grow very well in this region, as well as plants, such as wheat and corn, that like similar environments.